Healthcare Credit for Small Business
Frequently Asked Questions About the Health Care Tax Credit
Health Care Tax Credit for Small Business
- A qualifying employer must cover at least 50 percent of the cost of health care coverage for some of its workers based on the single rate.
- A qualifying employer must have less than the equivalent of 25 full-time workers (for example, an employer with fewer than 50 half-time workers may be eligible).
- A qualifying employer must pay average annual wages below $50,000.
Amount of Credit
- The credit is worth up to 35 percent of a small business’ premium costs in 2010. On Jan. 1, 2014, this rate increases to 50 percent (35 percent for tax-exempt employers).
- The credit phases out gradually for firms with average wages between $25,000 and $50,000 and for firms with the equivalent of between 10 and 25 full-time workers.
Three Simple Steps for Employers to Qualify
To determine if your small business or tax exempt organization qualifies for the Small Business Health Care Tax Credit, follow the three simple steps on our fact sheet.
This link below will bring you to the IRS website of frequently asked questions regarding this credit.
Small Business Health Care Tax Credit: Frequently Asked Questions
The new health reform law gives a tax credit to certain small employers that provide health care coverage to their employees, effective with tax years beginning in 2010. The following questions and answers provide information on the credit as it applies for 2010-2013, including information on transition relief for 2010. An enhanced version of the credit will be effective beginning in 2014. The new law, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, was passed by Congress and was signed by President Obama on March 23, 2010.
Employers Eligible for the Credit
1. Which employers are eligible for the small employer health care tax credit?
A. Small employers that provide health care coverage to their employees and that meet certain requirements (“qualified employers”) generally are eligible for a Federal income tax credit for health insurance premiums they pay for certain employees. In order to be a qualified employer, (1) the employer must have fewer than 25 full-time equivalent employees (“FTEs”) for the tax year, (2) the average annual wages of its employees for the year must be less than $50,000 per FTE, and (3) the employer must pay the premiums under a “qualifying arrangement” described in Q/A-3. See Q/A-9 through 15 for further information on calculating FTEs and average annual wages and see Q/A-22 for information on anticipated transition relief for tax years beginning in 2010 with respect to the requirements for a qualifying arrangement.
2. Can a tax-exempt organization be a qualified employer?
A. Only premiums paid by the employer under an arrangement meeting certain requirements (a “qualifying arrangement”) are counted in calculating the credit. Under a qualifying arrangement, the employer pays premiums for each employee enrolled in health care coverage offered by the employer in an amount equal to a uniform percentage (not less than 50 percent) of the premium cost of the coverage. See Q/A-22 for information on transition relief for tax years beginning in 2010 with respect to the requirements for a qualifying arrangement.
If an employer pays only a portion of the premiums for the coverage provided to employees under the arrangement (with employees paying the rest), the amount of premiums counted in calculating the credit is only the portion paid by the employer. For example, if an employer pays 80 percent of the premiums for employees’ coverage (with employees paying the other 20 percent), the 80 percent premium amount paid by the employer counts in calculating the credit. For purposes of the credit (including the 50-percent requirement), any premium paid pursuant to a salary reduction arrangement under a section 125 cafeteria plan is not treated as paid by the employer.
In addition, the amount of an employer’s premium payments that counts for purposes of the credit is capped by the premium payments the employer would have made under the same arrangement if the average premium for the small group market in the State (or an area within the State) in which the employer offers coverage were substituted for the actual premium. If the employer pays only a portion of the premium for the coverage provided to employees (for example, under the terms of the plan the employer pays 80 percent of the premiums and the employees pay the other 20 percent), the premium amount that counts for purposes of the credit is the same portion (80 percent in the example) of the premiums that would have been paid for the coverage if the average premium for the small group market in the State were substituted for the actual premium.
4. What is the average premium for the small group market in a State (or an area within the State)?
A. For tax years beginning in 2010 through 2013, the maximum credit is 35 percent of the employer’s premium expenses that count towards the credit, as described in Q/A-3.
Example. For the 2010 tax year, a qualified employer has 9 FTEs with average annual wages of $23,000 per FTE. The employer pays $72,000 in health care premiums for those employees (which does not exceed the average premium for the small group market in the employer’s State) and otherwise meets the requirements for the credit. The credit for 2010 equals $25,200 (35% x $72,000).
6. What is the maximum credit for a tax-exempt qualified employer?
A. For tax years beginning in 2010 through 2013, the maximum credit for a tax-exempt qualified employer is 25 percent of the employer’s premium expenses that count towards the credit, as described in Q/A-3. However, the amount of the credit cannot exceed the total amount of income and Medicare (i.e., Hospital Insurance) tax the employer is required to withhold from employees’ wages for the year and the employer share of Medicare tax on employees’ wages.
Example. For the 2010 tax year, a qualified tax-exempt employer has 10 FTEs with average annual wages of $21,000 per FTE. The employer pays $80,000 in health care premiums for those employees (which does not exceed the average premium for the small group market in the employer’s State) and otherwise meets the requirements for the credit. The total amount of the employer’s income tax and Medicare tax withholding plus the employer’s share of the Medicare tax equals $30,000 in 2010.
The credit is calculated as follows:
(1) Initial amount of credit determined before any reduction: (25% x $80,000) = $20,000
(2) Employer’s withholding and Medicare taxes: $30,000
(3) Total 2010 tax credit is $20,000 (the lesser of $20,000 and $30,000).
7. How is the credit reduced if the number of FTEs exceeds 10 or average annual wages exceed $25,000?
A. Yes. Because the limitation on the number of employees is based on FTEs, an employer with 25 or more employees could qualify for the credit if some of its employees work part-time. For example, an employer with 46 half-time employees (meaning they are paid wages for 1,040 hours) has 23 FTEs and therefore may qualify for the credit.
12. Are seasonal workers counted in determining the number of FTEs and the amount of average annual wages?
A. Generally, no. A sole proprietor, a partner in a partnership, a shareholder owning more than two percent of an S corporation, and any owner of more than five percent of other businesses are not considered employees for purposes of the credit. Thus, the wages or hours of these business owners and partners are not counted in determining either the number of FTEs or the amount of average annual wages, and premiums paid on their behalf are not counted in determining the amount of the credit.
14. Do family members of a business owner who work for the business count as employees?
A. Members of a controlled group (e.g., businesses with the same owners) or an affiliated service group (e.g., related businesses of which one performs services for the other) are treated as a single employer for purposes of the credit. Thus, for example, all employees of the controlled group or affiliated service group, and all wages paid to employees by the controlled group or affiliated service group, are counted in determining whether any member of the controlled group or affiliated service group is a qualified employer. Rules for determining whether an employer is a member of a controlled group or an affiliated service group are provided under Code section 414(b), (c), (m), and (o).
How to Claim the Credit
16. How does an employer claim the credit?
A. Generally, no. Except in the case of a tax-exempt employer, the credit for a year offsets only an employer’s actual income tax liability (or alternative minimum tax liability) for the year. However, as a general business credit, an unused credit amount can generally be carried back one year and carried forward 20 years. Because an unused credit amount cannot be carried back to a year before the effective date of the credit, though, an unused credit amount for 2010 can only be carried forward.
18. Can a tax-exempt employer claim the credit if it has no taxable income for the year?
A. Yes. The credit can be reflected in determining estimated tax payments for the year to which the credit applies in accordance with regular estimated tax rules.
20. Does taking the credit affect an employer’s deduction for health insurance premiums?
A. No. The credit applies against income tax, not employment taxes.
Anticipated Transition Relief for Tax Years Beginning in 2010
22. Is it expected that any transition relief will be provided for tax years beginning in 2010 to make it easier for taxpayers to meet the requirements for a qualifying arrangement?
A. Yes. The IRS and Treasury intend to issue guidance that will provide that, for tax years beginning in 2010, the following transition relief applies with respect to the requirements for a qualifying arrangement described in Q/A-3:
(a) An employer that pays at least 50% of the premium for each employee enrolled in coverage offered to employees by the employer will not fail to maintain a qualifying arrangement merely because the employer does not pay a uniform percentage of the premium for each such employee. Accordingly, if the employer otherwise satisfies the requirements for the credit described above, it will qualify for the credit even though the percentage of the premium it pays is not uniform for all such employees.
(b) The requirement that the employer pay at least 50% of the premium for an employee applies to the premium for single (employee-only) coverage for the employee. Therefore, if the employee is receiving single coverage, the employer satisfies the 50% requirement with respect to the employee if it pays at least 50% of the premium for that coverage. If the employee is receiving coverage that is more expensive than single coverage (such as family or self-plus-one coverage), the employer satisfies the 50% requirement with respect to the employee if the employer pays an amount of the premium for such coverage that is no less than 50% of the premium for single coverage for that employee (even if it is less than 50% of the premium for the coverage the employee is actually receiving).